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LONG-NOSED APES                                569

commit a sin vicariously. This Ape has immense powers of
leaping—a space of 20 to 30 feet can be cleared by them if
one side, that from which the leap is taken, be considerably higher
than the other. They are useful to the Tiger hunter, as they
follow and hoot at this, their deadly enemy. 8. scJiistaceus is a
species which lives at great heights, not less than 5000 feet, in
the Himalayas.
The genus Nasalis is hardly separable from the genus
SeinnopitTiecus. It is a Bornean animal, and is distinguished by
a comical long nose, which not only suggests, but goes beyond, the
aquiline nose of the human species. It is no doubt on this
account that the Borneans, unconsciously imitating our habit of
comparing " natives" in general to Monkeys, call it by a name
which signifies " white man." HJiinopithecus has also a long, but
a more definitely upturned nose.
Fossil Monkeys.—Several of the existing genera of Old-World
Apes are also known to have existed in past times; in some cases
their past distribution indicates a greater range. Thus M^acacus
is now represented—and that doubtfully—in Europe by the
Barbary Ape alone. But from Montpellier have been unearthed
the remains of Jkf. priscits, from Pliocene beds. The Asiatic
Semnopithecus is known to have lived during the Pliocene period;
its remains are discovered in France and Italy, as well as in
Asia. In addition to these existing forms, a number of totally
extinct Old-World genera are known. The rich formation at
Pikermi near Athens has produced JMTesopitTiecus pentelici; this
Monkey has a skull which recalls that of Semnopithecus, while
the stout limbs are rather Macaque-like. As is the case with
many living Catarrhines, the males have stronger canines. The
animal had a long tail.
An analogous annectent character is shown by the Italian
fossil, Oreopithecus 'bamJbolii. This animal was referred by one
palaeontologist to the Man-like Apes, by another to the Cerco-
pithecidae. It suggests a common ancestral form, and is Middle
Miocene in horizon.
Just as there are no Platyrrhine Apes in the Old World so
there are no Oatarrhines met with in. a fossil condition in the New
World; the two great divisions of the Apes were as distinct in
the past, so far as we know, as they are now—a strong argument
in favour of those who would derive them from two sources. The